Norwegian Electric Systems testfacilities
Norwegian Electric Systems testfacilities
- Copyright Norwegian Electric Systems


Articles and presentations

Sub Project 2 - Hybrid propulsion

Marine Hybrid propulsion and batteries


The interest in using batteries in maritime applications has grown rapidly the latest years, mainly due to the success in road transport (private cars). Today hybrid propulsion systems and pure electric propulsion systems have been put in operation on several ship concepts. To increase knowledge about the utilization of such systems a study to determine the applicability for maritime use of batteries will be carried out. This will also include a full economic and environmental due diligence of such systems.

The Hybrid technologies to be focused will include: battery storage of energy to take peak power requirements, engine power arrangements, cold ironing in port by vessel batteries, propulsion at sea by electricity from batteries only and power management systems.

This activity is organized as an integrated project under SFI Smart Maritime research program.



Identify and quantify the potential for reduction of cost and emissions in a maritime setting. And further establish objective knowledge regarding technology potential for battery capacity, lifetime and cost

Prerequisites and limitations

Input from industry partners is requied to get good results. This is especially relevant for component data which will be used to understand system efficiency potential and as input to simulation models.

Project execution


Description of work and activities

Tasks and activities

1. Battery technology – a technology review, possibilities and promises
2. Marine hybrid power systems – a technology review, possibilities and promises
3. Pure electrical marine propulsion – possible operating profile
4. Marine propulsion configurations using hybrid technologies
5. Potential of using power from batteries in harbour operations
6. Perform a full economic and environmental due diligence of battery applications.

Task 1. Battery technology – a technology review, possibilities and promises

Work description:

Literature review, state of art
• Literature research, battery types and challenges
• Interview with industry and R&D institutions
• Rules and regulations for maritime application
• Battery safety and lifetime evaluation based on operation profiles
• Establish cooperation with other relevant R&D activities

Involvement from partners:

Technical input and experience data. Review of draft report.
Additional Input data: Literature, industry and R&D institutions

Expected results:

Description of alternative battery technology and main suppliers.
Safety aspects and requirements (class and authorities) for alternative battery technologies.
Assessment of models for life time analysis of battery installations in a hybrid power system.


Literature review, Summer 2015
Draft report for review by involved partner's: spring 2016.
Final report: Autumn 2016
Time schedule: Jun 2015-Oct 2016.

Task 2&3. Marine hybrid power systems - Technology review, possibilities and promises

Work description

Task 2 - Hybrid system arrangement and design. Components and functions in a hybrid system
Make a description of alternative designs and configurations from various suppliers. Describe main characteristics and key features on various designs and components.
• System arrangement and characteristics
• AC systems vs. DC-link
o Key features and challenges for AC and DC system alternatives
• System efficiency, component characteristics
o Generators/motors
o Frequency converter, drives
o Transformers
o Switchboard and cables
• Power generation, charging and storage
o Diesel/gas generator set for power production
o Cold ironing incl. identifying possibilities and limitations for using battery in combination with shore power
o Power distribution and usage
o Power storage
• Efficiency profile of hybrid systems

Task 3 - Pure electrical marine propulsion – possible operating profile

Evaluate alternative ship type's operational profile and energy consumption in all operation modes. Evaluate potentials for pure electric operation. Specify user requirements for such installations.

Alternative ship types and operational profile

• Power requirements, energy consumption
• Battery capacities
• Battery specifications, charge time and operation limits

Standards. Relevant safety and operation standards. Charge infrastructure

• Automatic charging
• New charging systems
• Harbour infrastructure and grid capacity
• Charging time

Involvement from partners

Provide data on own products and experience, component specification, efficiency, general info.

Input data:

Literature, industry and R&D institutions
Link to WP2


Smart Maritime report
Time schedule: Jan 2016-Aug 2016.

Task 4. Marine propulsion configurations using hybrid technologies


Work description

Hybrid propulsion systems have been introduced to the market for several ship types, and significant fuel savings are reported. Improved theoretical knowledge and verification of savings by simulation models and laboratory test in a generic way and adapting these models on case ship will be the main work in this activity. Following subtasks are identified:
• Operational profile and power requirements, selected ship cases
• Power balance vs. operational modes
• Develop simulation models, (generic – as a part of WP3)
• Develop load sharing control strategies for DC grid and alternative energy sources/storages
• Adaption of simulation model to defined ship cases
• Verification of simulation models by laboratory tests, (combination of WP3 and project)
• Battery life time estimation, operational requirements obtained from dynamic engine operation (combination of WP3 and project). Provide basic information and key operational data for use in battery degradation prediction
• Reduction of resistance in a seaway by energy storage in batteries. Cooperation with existing KPN programs, LEEDS and D2V (WP3 activity - results reported here)
• Provide input to WP3 and WP4 on development of methodology for selecting and sizing energy storage for a given vessel, operating profile and required energy storage lifetime and implementation the methodology in a tool to facilitate rapid vessel design (WP4).

Potential case ships for this activity may be:

• Supply
• Ferry
• Freight ship – short sea
• Freight ship – deep sea

Supply: Technology is established in this market segment. 15-20% FOC reduction is claimed.
Ferry: Hybrid systems are introduced. Benefits should be verified
Freight ships: Can this be a marked? Benefits should be verified

Involvement from partners:

Provide information on component data and characteristic in transient operation.
Input on current state of the art control strategies for load sharing when using DC grid and/or batteries.

Input data sources:

Literature, industry and R&D institutions
Laboratory test facilities, (Hybrid lab)
Results/data from 6.2 and 6.3
Simulation model
Verification report
Journal Paper
Smart Maritime report
Time schedule: Feb 2016-Dec 2016.

Task 5 - Potential of using power from batteries in harbour operations


Work description

Electric operation in harbour operation will influence on local emissions and may also contribute to fuel savings. It is of interest to establish power requirements in harbour operations for alternative ship types to investigate if power from batteries could be applicable for specific cases. This includes all operation within restricted waters close to harbour including loading/unloading.
• Define power requirements on various ship types during manoeuvring, loading unloading operation
• Load profiles
• User requirements/ for battery operation
• Safety issues during manoeuvring. Authorities and harbour requirements. Other regulations.
• Loading /unloading operation
• Cold ironing vs. battery operation, technical issues on shore and ship equipment installation, cost benefit approach. Benchmark.
• Requirements to Harbour infrastructure, grid vs. energy storage on board.
Following ship types to be considered:
• Supply
• Ferry
• Freight ship – short sea
• Freight ship – deep sea

Involvement from partners

Ship operation data: Power requirements in various modes of operation for alternative ship types.
Input data sources:
Literature, industry and R&D institutions

Task 6 - Perform a full economic and environmental due diligence of battery applications


Work description

Investigate the use of batteries in shipping from an LCA perspective taking into account the life cycle of battery. Benchmark against traditional system design.
• Definition of cases and boundaries
• Cost data and analysis, material, transportation, operation, etc.
• Environmental issues,
• Life time
• Power efficiency, losses
• Enhanced use in specific applications, i.e. added value for an installation by increasing overall operation time.
• Cost due to rules and regulatory requirements, such as fire safety systems, battery room etc.
Involvement from partners
Data on component and system specifications, materials and cost

Input data sources:

Literature, industry and R&D institutions
Input from other tasks
Existing LCA models


Benchmark Report
Journal paper/Conference paper
Key performance indicators
What kind of vessels and applications may have economic benefit from a battery installation?

Time schedule:

Initial data acquisition on basic modelling to be carried out in WP1 and WP3 - Fuel project in 2016.
Work on specific hybrid topics to be carried out in 2017.

WP – involvement

WP 1 Feasibility studies
WP 3 Power Systems and Fuel: Power system simulation modelling
WP 4 Ship system integration, validation and monitoring: Integration of simulation models and validation of virtual prototypes against full-scale data
WP5 Environment and economic due diligence


Duration: 2 years. Start July 2015

Status June 2016: Draft report on "Battery technology" issued and to be reviewed. Experience from DNV to be included. Follow up meetings in august 2016. Report on Marine hybrid power systems and components in progress. Summer student engaged june –aug 2016: Data collection, literature study. Partner meetings and data exchange with ABB, RR/Smartmotor and Siemens related to general component data and data models for simulation.

• ABB, several meetings; established sharepoint solution for data exchange related to hybrid.lab and other components
• RR/SmartMotor. Several meetings. Definition of models, basic data. Follow up in august.
• Siemens: Initial meeting. To be followed up further
On tasks 4 and 5 meetings with DNV are planned in august to coordinate their contribution and experience into the planned work.
Task 6 is planned in 2017

Participants and resources



Relevant industry partners :

ABB, Siemens, RRM, DNV GL, Grieg Star


SP leader: Dag Stenersen
Personnel: Ingebrigt Valberg, Eilif Pedersen, Torstein Ingebriktsen Bø, Anders Valland