This article reviews the available systems for shore-to-ship high-power charging, including recent technologies, control methods, and related challenges. The battery charging path from shore to the onboard battery involves several main components and control functions, such as power electronics converters, transformers and passive elements, plugs and interconnectors, as well as charging energy management system (EMS). A comparison of different charging systems, such as ac, dc, and wireless solutions, and the applicability of each system are discussed. Furthermore, the recent commercial shore-to-ship interfaces for charging purposes are introduced. Finally, a generic overview of the control functions needed for shore charging is provided.
S. Karimi, M. Zadeh and J. A. Suul, "Shore Charging for Plug-In Battery-Powered Ships: Power System Architecture, infrastructure, and Control," in IEEE Electrification Magazine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 47-61, Sept. 2020, doi: 10.1109/MELE.2020.3005699.