Benjamin Lagemann

PhD student WP4 (2019–2022)

Supervisor: Stein Ove Erikstad

Co-supervisor: Bjørn Egil Asbjørnslett, Sverre Steen





Conceptual ship design

Research topic

The research objective for this project is
Improve and enhance conceptual ship design methodology to cater for GHG emission reductions along the ship's lifetime

RQ 1: How to effectively explore low-emission ship design options?
This research question is technology neutral and aims at improving the ship design methodology.


Lagemann, B. & Erikstad, S. O. (2020). Modular Conceptual Synthesis of Low-Emission Ships. 12th Symposium on High-Performance Marine Vehicles, Technische Universität Hamburg, 134-151,

Lagemann, B.; Seidenberg, T.; Jürgenhake, C.; Erikstad, S. O. & Dumitrescu, R. (2021). System alternatives for modular, zero-emission high-speed ferries. SNAME International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation,

RQ 2: How to effectively handle the complexities introduced by low-emission technology in the concept design phase?
Certain technologies may require the application of special methods. The following RQs hence aim to develop such methods for alternative fuels and wind-assisted propulsion (WASP).

RQ 2.1: What method qualifies for selecting among alternative fuels under lifetime uncertainty?

Alternative fuels each come with a variety of advantages and disadvantages as well as uncertainties. Among the largest uncertainties are the future price of fuels derived from different feedstocks (fossil, bio, electricity), availability and additional GHG reduction incentives such as CO2 taxes. This RQ aims to address these uncertainties in a rational and transparent manner.


Lindstad, E.; Lagemann, B.; Rialland, A.; Gamlem, G. M. & Valland, A. (2021). Reduction of maritime GHG emissions and the potential role of E-fuels. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 101, 103075,

Lagemann, B.; Lindstad, E.; Fagerholt, K.; Rialland, A. & Erikstad, S. O. (2022). Optimal ship lifetime fuel and power system selection. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 102, 103145,

RQ 2.2: How can behavioral complexities be handled when selecting among wind-assisted ship propulsion (WASP) technology at different TRL-levels?

Similar to alternative fuels, WASP technologies often have very distinct properties and favorable areas of application. This RQ therefore seeks to develop a method for analyzing, benchmarking and finally comparing different WASP technologies for individual ship design cases.




Industrial goals

A large fraction of costs and ship life-time emissions are determined by decisions made during the preliminary ship design phase. Thus, the goal of this study is to support ship designers and ship owners in their decisions during this early design phase. An illustrative question to be supported would be: “Should the next newbuilt be prepared for a retrofit with, e.g. Hydrogen storage facilities, during its life-time?”. Since the definite answer is likely to depend on certain scenarios for the future, these shall be effectively included in the design process.